Section 14 - Perkins Glossary


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504 Plan
See also: Individualized Educational Program (IEP)
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (34 C.F.R. Part 104) assures individuals will not be discriminated against based on disabilities. 504 Plans are formal plans schools develop to provide children with disabilities the support they need to be successful in school.

Academic Program
A cohesive arrangement of college-level credit courses and experiences designed to accomplish predetermined objectives leading to the awarding of a degree, diploma, or certificate. Undergraduate degree programs shall include a general education component. The purpose of an academic program is to increase students’ knowledge and understanding in a field of study or discipline, qualify students for employment in an occupation or range of occupations, and/or prepare students for advanced study.[Minnesota State Policy 3.36]

Academic Program Inventory
An official list of postsecondary academic programs offered by Minnesota State. The inventory identifies Perkins-eligible and nontraditional programs.

Academically Disadvantaged
See also: Disadvantaged Individuals; Economically Disadvantaged.
An individual who scores at or below the 25th percentile on a standardized achievement or aptitude test, whose secondary school grades are below 2.0 on a 4.0 scale (on which the grade “A” equals 4.0), or who fails to attain minimum academic competencies. This definition does not include individuals with learning disabilities. [34 CFR 400.4]

Access to Career Technical Education for Students with Disabilities (ACTE-SPED)
Program designed for students who require curriculum modifications and special equipment to participate in state-approved CTE work-based learning programs.

See also: Placement Tests
A series of course placement assessment provided by College Board and used by some colleges, including most Minnesota State schools, to assess reading, writing, and math skills. Results are used to place students in appropriate level of college courses.

Achievement Gap
Also known as: Opportunity Gap
Disparity in academic performance between members of demographic groups as reported in grades, standardized test scores, dropout rates, and postsecondary enrollment, and other success measures. [CAREERwise]

(When used in reference to administration of the Perkins grant)
Activities necessary for the proper and efficient performance of the eligible agency or eligible recipient’s duties under the Perkins Act, including the supervision of such activities. This term does not include curriculum development activities, personnel development or research activities. In Minnesota, activities associated with managing the local consortium funds, managing local consortium data or indirect costs are considered administration and may not exceed five percent (5%) of the grant funds at the secondary or postsecondary level. [Perkins V]

Adult Basic Education (ABE)
Public education programs serving students ages 16 and over who are not enrolled in school and who want to improve their basic skills, including math, reading, language, and work- readiness skills. The most common ABE programs in Minnesota are English Language Learning, GED prep/secondary (high school) credential attainment, and pre-employment or career pathway content. Minnesota ABE is administered by the Department of Education.

Adult Learner
Adult learners exhibit one or more of seven characteristics:

  • Have delayed enrollment into postsecondary education
  • Attend a postsecondary program part-time
  • Are financially independent of parents
  • Work full-time while enrolled
  • Have dependents other than a spouse
  • Are a single parent
  • Lack a standard high school diploma

[U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)]

National non-profit agency representing state CTE directors and CTE leaders. Their website is

Advanced Placement (AP)
Academic program that allows high school students to take college-level courses in a high school setting. Students can receive college credits if they pass a corresponding exam.

Advisory Committee
See Program Advisory Committee.

All Aspects of Industry
Strong experience in, and comprehensive understanding of, the industry students are preparing to enter. [Perkins V]

Annual Performance Report (APR)
A consortium report of data, fiscal, and continuous improvement outcomes for the prior fiscal year Perkins annual application.

Articulated College Credit
Also known as: Articulated High School to College Credit.
The process of coordinating two or more educational systems to help a student transition smoothly from secondary to postsecondary without experiencing delays, duplication of courses or loss of credit. Horizontal articulation generally refers to learner transfer of credit from one program to another within one institution or from one institution to another of the same level (e.g. college to another college). Vertical articulation refers to the transfer of credit from a lower-level institution (high school or associate degree program) to a higher-level one.

Articulation Agreement
A written, signed commitment that is agreed upon at the state level or approved annually by lead administrators of a secondary institution and a postsecondary educational institution; or a sub-baccalaureate degree granting postsecondary educational institution and a baccalaureate degree-granting postsecondary educational institution. Agreement must include a program of study that is designed to provide learners with a non-duplicative sequence of progressive achievement leading to technical skill proficiency, a credential, a certificate, or a degree; and utilizes credit transfer agreements between the institutions described above. [Perkins V]

Associate of Applied Science (AAS)
See also: CTE Awards.
Degree offered at community and technical colleges that is designed for immediate entry into the workplace and may have more limited transferability than other Associate Degrees. AAS degree programs are not designed for transfer to baccalaureate degree majors. Program examples: accounting, computer networking, or welding.

Associate of Science (AS)
See also: CTE Awards.
Community college degrees designed to transfer into a specific four-year degree major at partnering universities through articulation agreements. Examples of majors: math, biology, chemistry or physics.

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Basic Grant
See also: Perkins Local Application. The amount of Perkins funding each consortium is awarded each fiscal year after submitting their Local Application. Calculations for the Basic Grant are based on specific attributes of the secondary and postsecondary constituents. Consortia may receive additional funding through reallocated funds or leadership funds.

Brokering of Services
Also known as: Continuum of Services for Learners. See also: Continuum of Service Provision (CSP). This is described as the act of a consortium collaborating with other consortia, as needed, to assist learners in locating Programs of Study that meet their career interests and aspirations. Also, actions taken to assist learners in locating appropriate preparatory courses or learning activities not available locally to prepare for a Program of Study

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Career and College Readiness
For purposes of statewide accountability, career and college readiness means a high school graduate has the knowledge, skills, and competencies to successfully pursue a career pathway, including postsecondary credit leading to a degree, diploma, certificate, or industry-recognized credential and employment. Students who are career and college ready are able to successfully complete credit-bearing coursework at a two- or four-year college or university or other credit- bearing postsecondary program without need for remediation. [Minnesota Statute 120B.30, subdivision 1(p)].

Career and Technical Education (CTE)
Also known as: Career Technical Education (no “and”). Organized educational activities that
(A) offer a sequence of courses that

  • provides individuals with rigorous academic content and relevant technical knowledge and skills needed to prepare for further education and careers in current or emerging professions, which may include highskill, high-wage, or in-demand industry sectors or occupations, which shall be, at the secondary level, aligned with the challenging State academic standards adopted by a State under section 1111(b)(1) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965;
  • provides technical skill proficiency or a recognized postsecondary credential, which may include an industry-recognized credential, a certificate, or an associate degree; and
  • may include prerequisite courses (other than a remedial course) that meet the requirements of this subparagraph;

(B) include competency-based, work-based, or other applied learning that supports the development of academic knowledge, higher-order reasoning and problem-solving skills, work attitudes, employability skills, technical skills, and occupation-specific skills, and knowledge of all aspects of an industry, including entrepreneurship, of an individual;

(C) to the extent practicable, coordinate between secondary and postsecondary education programs through programs of study, which may include coordination through articulation agreements, early college high school programs, dual or concurrent enrollment program opportunities, or other credit transfer agreements that provide postsecondary credit or advanced standing; and

(D) may include career exploration at the high school level or as early as the middle grades (as such term is defined in section 8108 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965). [Perkins V]

Career and Technical Student Organization (CTSO)
A high school or college student leadership organization, recognized under M.S. 124D.355 or Minnesota State Board Policy as a CTSO, and considered co-curricular in nature, that engages in activities integral to student success in Career and Technical Education programs.

Career Assessment
Also known as: Skills Assessment, Interest Assessment, Aptitude Test. The process of measuring an individual’s career aptitude, career interest, and academic and career achievement. It may also include such factors as work history, physical capacity, work values and temperament. Career assessment may be accomplished through formal, standardized instruments or through informal means such as interviews or observing work samples. Employers can use assessments for pre-employment testing to maximize chances for getting the right fit between jobs and employees. Educators use different types of assessments to analyze students' knowledge or progression in a program. [U.S. Department of Education; CAREERWise]

Career Cluster Framework
A visual representation of the six career fields, 17 career clusters and 79 career pathways adopted by Minnesota CTE and other entities. Includes foundational knowledge and skills and description of Minnesota Programs of Study. Also known as the Minnesota Career Fields, Clusters & Pathways chart or the Career Wheel.

Career Clusters
See also: Career Cluster Framework; Career Fields; Career Pathways. A grouping of occupations and broad industries into a national classification of 17 clusters that are based upon common knowledge and skills. Career clusters include hundreds of occupations that may be grouped into pathways around which secondary and postsecondary educational Programs of Study can be built.

  • Agriculture, Food, & Natural Resources
  • Architecture & Construction
  • Arts, Audio/Video Technology, & Communications
  • Business, Management, & Administration
  • Education & Training
  • Energy Systems
  • Finance
  • Government & Public Administration
  • Health Science
  • Hospitality & Tourism
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Law, Public Safety, Corrections, & Security
  • Manufacturing
  • Marketing, Sales, & Service
  • Science, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics
  • Transportation, Distribution, & Logistics

Career Exploration
Activities designed to provide individuals exposure to career options. May include reviewing career opportunities in particular fields or pathways, identifying specific careers to potentially prepare for and pursue, writing individual/ personalized learning plans that align with career areas or programs of study offered at the middle and high school level, using local labor market information to make short- and longterm career plans, and work-based learning.

Career Fields
See also: Career Clusters; Career Cluster Framework; Career Pathways. Six broad groupings of occupations that can be subdivided into 17 career clusters and numerous career pathways as part of the Minnesota Career Fields, Clusters, and Pathways framework.

  • Agriculture, Food, & Natural Resources
  • Art, Communications, & Information Systems
  • Business, Management, & Administration
  • Engineering, Manufacturing, & Technology
  • Health Science Technology
  • Human Services

Career Pathway
See also: Career Cluster; Career Fields; Career Cluster Framework. A group of occupations within a career cluster that provides a plan for advancement through a career field. Career pathways combine rigorous and high quality education, training, and other services that align with the local and regional need, prepares an individual to be successful in any of a full range of secondary or postsecondary education options including workbased learning, apprenticeships, accelerates the educational experience and career advancement, that enables an individual to attain a secondary diploma (or recognized equivalent) and at least one industry-recognized or postsecondary credential, and provides career advancement. [Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act]

Previously known as Minnesota Workforce Centers. CareerForce provides the tools, resources, and services needed for job search, career planning, and skills training in Minnesota. There are CareerForce locations throughout the state. [CAREERwise]

See also: CTE Awards. A type of academic award. An undergraduate certificate is awarded upon completion of a 9 to 30 credit academic program and may have an occupational outcome or address a focused area of study. [Minnesota State Colleges and Universities System Procedure 3.36.1.]

Also known as: Occupational Certification; Industry Certification. See also: Professional Licensure. Credentials that are recognized by national, state or regional industry groups verifying the attainment of skills necessary for success in a given occupation or career pathway.

Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) Codes
See also: Standard Occupational Classification System (SOC). A US Department of Education classification system supporting reporting and tracking of programs of instruction. CIP Codes connect to Career Fields, Clusters, and Pathways via crosswalks. In postsecondary, the Minnesota State Academic Program Division assigns CIP codes to all approved academic programs; staff at system institutions locally assign CIP codes to academic courses.

Coherent Sequence of Courses
A series of courses in which technical and academic education are integrated, and which directly relates to, and leads to, both academic and occupational competencies. The term includes competency-based education, academic education, and adult training or retraining, including sequential units encompassed within a single adult retraining course, that otherwise meet the requirements of this definition. [34 CFR 400.4(b)]

Collaborative Agreement
A formal agreement between two or more parties, at least one of which is a system college or university, to co-deliver an academic program. One or more colleges or universities signing the agreement may confer the award. [Minnesota State Colleges and Universities Procedure 3.36.1, Part 2]

See also: Community College; Technical College; Consolidated College; Tribal College. A postsecondary educational institution that offers undergraduate programs, but usually no graduate degree programs. Undergraduate program awards include certificates, associates and bachelors degrees. In Minnesota, colleges include community colleges, technical colleges, Tribal colleges, and consolidated colleges that are separately accredited by the Higher Learning Commission.

College in The Schools (CIS; CITS)
An accredited concurrent enrollment program from the National Association of Concurrent Enrollment Programs (NACEP) serving high school students, teachers, and schools by increasing access to college learning, supporting excellence in teaching, and strengthening high school-college/university connections. A CIS course is delivered in the high school by a high school teacher.

A college or university course that meets college-level standards. Credits earned in a college-level course apply toward the requirements of a certificate, diploma or degree. [Minnesota State Procedure 3.3.1, Part 1, Subpart A]

Community College
See also: Consolidated College; Technical College; Tribal College. A type of college that offers one- or two-year degree programs. Full-time students can graduate in two years or less with a certificate, diploma, or degree in a career area. Or, students can earn an associate degree and then transfer to a four-year college or university to finish a bachelor's degree. Minnesota’s community colleges are all part of the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities system. [CAREERwise]

Community-Based Organization
A private, nonprofit organization of demonstrated effectiveness that is representative of communities or significant segments of communities and that provides job-training services. Examples include the National Urban League and the United Way of America. [34 CFR 400.4]

Concurrent Enrollment
Also known as: Dual Enrollment. A concurrent enrollment course is a college or university course made available through the Postsecondary Enrollment Options (PSEO) Program, offered through a secondary school and taught by a secondary teacher. Students in a concurrent enrollment course receive both high school and college credit upon completion. [Minnesota State Colleges and Universities Policy 3.5]

Consolidated Annual Report (CAR)
A federally required report submitted by the state each December that includes Minnesota’s progress on meeting established performance levels from the previous reporting year. Data for each core indicator, as well as participation counts and the number of CTE concentrators within each career cluster are reported to the federal Office of Career, Technical, and Adult Education (OCTAE) by all required demographic, special population, or other subcategories of students.

Consolidated College
See also: Community College; Technical College; Tribal College. Community colleges and technical colleges that have formally organized into a single institution. In Minnesota, consolidation occurs under the direction of the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities Board of Trustees. [Minnesota State Colleges and Universities Policy 1A.1]

Contextual Learning
Learning that occurs in close relationship with actual experience. Contextual learning enables students to test academic theories via tangible, real world applications. Stressing the development of “authentic” problem-solving skills, contextual learning is designed to blend teaching methods, content, situation, and timing. [MDE Rubric for Assessing Career and Technical Education Programs]

Continuum of Service Provision (CSP)
See also: Brokering of Services A set of support services, curricular processes, and educational products determined by consortia that create value for students. Such services should leverage systemic change within, between, and among local consortia.

Cooperative Education
A method of education for individuals who, through written arrangements between a school and employers, receive instruction, including required rigorous academic courses and related Career and Technical Education instruction. The arrangement allows for alternation of study in school with a job in a related occupational field. Alternation:

  • Shall be planned and supervised by the school and employer so that each contributes to the dedication and employability of the individual, and
  • May include an arrangement in which work periods and school attendance may be on alternate half days, full days, weeks, or other periods of time in fulfilling the cooperative program [34 CFR 400.4]

Activities conducted by CTE consortium leadership to carry out the goals for the purposes of staffing or directing local consortium activities associated with the application. Coordination may include organization and operation of professional development experiences, leadership and operation of activities associated with program development and expansion, development and implementation of Programs of Study, activities associated with coordinating work supported by Perkins funds with activities supported by other (state or local) resources, and activities associated with developing and sustaining the consortium. In Minnesota, coordination activities are not included among those activities held to the 5 percent administrative cap, but should be included in the application narrative where appropriate. This definition does not apply to coordination of student activities as a teacher/faculty/coordinator or student organization advisor.

Core Competencies
See also: Employability Skills. Areas of personal capability that enable an individual to successfully perform standard tasks or prove understanding of a subject area. Competencies can be knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, or personal characteristics deemed necessary in that subject matter or career cluster. (Source: CAREERwise)

Credit for Prior Learning (CPL)
Opportunities to demonstrate college and university-level learning gained in non-credit or experiential settings. Experiences are evaluated by faculty or vetted third-party to determine relevance and equivalencies to academic credit.

CTE Articulated High School to College Credit
See also: Articulated College Credit; Concurrent Enrollment. Credit that is a part of a course articulation agreement between high schools, colleges, or universities, and provides credit for college-level course work completed in high school.

CTE Awards
Postsecondary credentials earned upon completion of a CTE program. Minnesota State Colleges and Universities defines these as postsecondary certificates, diplomas, and associate of applied science (AAS) and associate of science (AS) degrees.

CTE Concentrator
Secondary--Any 9th-12th-grade student who successfully completes 150 or more course hours which are part of a state-approved secondary CTE program, within one career field.
Postsecondary--A student enrolled in a Minnesota State two-year college who belongs to a particular CTE entering cohort and who:

  • Is enrolled in a long-term (12 or more credits) CTE program/award level AND earned 12 or more college level credits (cumulative), or
  • Completed a CTE award in a short-term (less than 12 credit) CTE program within the cohort timeframe

CTE Participant
Secondary--Any 9th-12th grade student who successfully completes one or more courses which are part of a stateapproved secondary CTE program.
Postsecondary--A student enrolled in a Minnesota State two-year college who belongs to a particular CTE entering cohort and who:

  • Earned more than zero college-level credits (cumulative) AND, within the cohort timeframe, was enrolled in a CTE program/award level or,
  • Earned more than zero college level credits in CTE course(s)

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Developmental Courses
Formerly known as Remedial Courses. Postsecondary undergraduate courses that prepare students for entry into college-level courses. Developmental level course credits do not apply toward a certificate, diploma, or degree.

See also: CTE Awards. Refers to either a credential earned upon high school graduation or a postsecondary award consisting of 31 to 72 credits that prepares students for employment in a specific occupation. [Minnesota State Colleges and Universities Procedure 3.36.1]

Disabled Person
Also known as: Person with Disabilities Any individual who:

  • has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of that individual;
  • has a record of an impairment; or
  • is regarded as having an impairment.

This definition includes any individual who has been evaluated under Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and is determined to be an individual with a disability who needs special education and related services; and any individual who is considered disabled under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. At the secondary level, counts of learners with disabilities are typically based on whether a learner has an Individualized Educational Program (IEP). At the postsecondary level, counts of learners with disabilities are typically based on learner self-reports of disabling conditions. [1990 Americans with Disabilities Act]

Disadvantaged Individuals
See also: Academically Disadvantaged; Economically Disadvantaged.
Students who, due to economic or academic deficiencies, require special services and assistance in order to succeed in CTE programs. This term includes individuals who are members of economically disadvantaged families, migrants, individuals of limited English proficiency, individuals who are dropouts from, or who are identified as potential dropouts from, secondary school. Does not include persons with disabilities. [34 CFR 400.4]

Dual Enrollment
See Concurrent Enrollment.

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Economically Disadvantaged
See also: Disadvantaged Individuals; Academically Disadvantaged.
A family or individual that is
(A) eligible for any of the following:

  • The program for Aid to Families with Dependent Children under Part A of Title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601);
  • Benefits under the Food Stamp Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 2011);
  • To be counted for purposes of section 1005 of Chapter 1 of Title 1 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, as amended (Chapter 1) (20 U.S.C. 2701);
  • Free or reduced-price meals program under the National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751); or
  • Participation in programs assisted under title II of the JTPA;

(B) In receipt of a Pell grant or assistance under a comparable State program of need-based financial assistance;

(C) Determined by the Secretary to be low-income according to the latest available data from the Department of Commerce or the Department of Health and Human Services Poverty Guidelines; or

(D) Identified as low-income according to other indices of economic status, as determined by the Secretary. [34 CFR 400.4]

Employability Skills
Also known as: Soft Skills.
See also: Core Competencies.
The aptitudes, abilities, attitudes, and personality traits needed to increase a job seeker's chances of being positively perceived by employers. Includes basic skills, such as reading comprehension and basic math skills, soft skills, technical skills, and workplace competencies needed to relate to and communicate with customers and coworkers. [CAREERwise]

Entrepreneurship Program
A school-supervised business venture undertaken to teach secondary students the free enterprise system, including the functions of organizing and managing the factors of production or a distribution of goods or services.

Experiential Learning
See also: Work-Based Learning.
Process of learning through experience undertaken by students to acquire and apply knowledge and skills in an immediate and relevant setting, such as in a laboratory, a marketplace or a community-based work site. Student experiential learning can also include opportunities to job shadow; hear a guest presenter describe his/her education, occupation and industry; attend a career fair; complete a service-learning project; or visit a college campus. Also includes more structured, stateapproved programs like work-based learning internships and youth apprenticeships. Experiential learning can be sponsored by a school for the purposes of providing students with opportunities for career exploration, occupational exploration, career planning, and occupational training. [Minnesota Department of Education]

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Full Participation
See also: Special Populations
Providing the supplementary and equitable services necessary for students from oppressed and repressed groups, also known as special populations, to succeed in CTE. [ESEA Act of 2006]

Full-Time Equivalent
Years of work experience are expressed in terms of full-time equivalent service with a full time twelve-month workload equal to one (1) FTE year. No more than 1.00 FTE is credited in any twelve-month period.

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General Education
A cohesive curriculum defined by system college or university faculty to develop general knowledge and reasoning ability through an integration of learning experiences in the liberal arts and sciences. [Minnesota State Procedure 3.36.1]

General Education Development (GED)
A diploma awarded to individuals who pass a test based on the Common Core State Standards. It is an alternative to a high school diploma for those who did not complete the standard high school curriculum. Passing all parts of the GED test is considered equivalent to a high school diploma by most colleges and employers.

General Occupational Skills
See also: All Aspects of Industry.
Experience in and understanding of all aspects of the industry the student is preparing to enter, including planning, management, finances, technical and production skills, underlying principles of technology, labor and community issues, and health, safety, and environmental issues. [P.L. 101392, Section 521[17]

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High-Growth Occupations or Industries
Occupations or industries projected to have more total openings than the average occupation, and represent at least 0.1% of total employment in the base year. Minnesota growing careers and Minnesota growing industries data is derived from Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development's employment projections. [CAREERwise]

High-Skill Occupation
Occupations that individuals can prepare for by completing programs resulting in industry-recognized certificates, credentials, or degrees.

High-Wage Occupation
Occupations or career pathways that have an annual median salary higher than the area’s composite median salary of all occupations, and that comprise at least 0.1 percent of total area employment. [Department of Employment and Economic Development]

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Improvement Plan
Consortia that meet less than 90% of their state-determined performance levels for any core indicator are required to submit written improvement plans detailing planned actions to improve performance for those indicators.

In-Demand Occupation
Occupations identified in the Occupation in Demand index ( and/or through local needs assessment.

Individualized Educational Program (IEP)
See also: 504 Plan
Educational plan for elementary and secondary students receiving special education services. Includes information on the student's current performance, goals and evaluation, and on what specific services and accommodations the student needs.

See also: Industry Sector
A specific type of business, or branch of a particular field, that employs personnel and uses and generates capital. Often named after its principal product or service. Examples: Banking industry or insurance industry; hospital industry or pharmaceutical industry. [Source: CAREERwise]

Industry-Recognized Credential
A credential that is sought or accepted by employers within the industry or sector involved as a recognized, preferred, or required credential for recruitment, screening, hiring, retention or advancement purposes; and, where appropriate, is endorsed by a nationally recognized trade association or organization representing a significant part of the industry or sector. [Association for Career and Technical Education]

Industry Sector
See also: Industry.
A broad group of industries and markets that share common attributes. Examples: Financial sector, health care sector.

Integrated Statewide Record System
The official statewide student record system used by all Minnesota State campuses. Data from this system is used for reporting on postsecondary CTE enrollment and accountability.

International Baccalaureate Diploma Program (IB)
A comprehensive two-year pre-college curriculum that is offered in high schools and accepted by universities around the world.

See also: Experiential Learning; Work-Based Learning.
A short-term experience where an individual works under supervision in a workplace to gain practical skills and experience in a career pathway and to increase work-readiness skills. A common type of work-based learning for high school 11th and 12th grade students and college students. Can be either paid or unpaid. Might offer school credit. [Source: CAREERwise]

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Labor Market Area
An economically integrated geographic area within which individuals can reside and find employment within a reasonable distance, or can readily change employment without changing their place of residence. Labor markets are classified as either metropolitan or non-metropolitan (small labor market) areas. [U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics]

Labor Market Information (LMI)
Quantitative or qualitative data and analysis related to employment and the workforce. Data can be national, statewide, regional or local, and can include all or specific industries or career areas. Examples of LMI used in career exploration include the unemployment rate, short- and longterm occupational demand, and skills gap reports.

Leadership Funds
See also: Perkins Legislation or Law.
Ten percent (10%) of Minnesota’s Perkins allocation is set aside to carry out state leadership activities including special projects and operational activities. Not more than two percent (2%) of state leadership funds must be dedicated to serve individuals in state correctional facilities. Minnesota’s state plan also provides for funding services that prepare individuals for nontraditional (by gender) training and employment and that support the recruitment of special populations to enroll in CTE programs. Additional annual leadership projects can be awarded though a competitive process.

Limited-English Proficient (LEP)
Also known as: English as a Second Language (ESL); English Language Learner (ELL).
A secondary school student, an adult, or an out-of-school youth who:

  • has limited ability in speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language; and
  • whose native language is a language other than English; or
  • who lives in a family or community environment in which a language other than English is the dominant language.

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Maintenance of Effort
A provision to ensure that states continue to provide funding for Career and Technical Education programs at least at the level of support of the previous year. The U.S. Secretary of Education may grant a waiver of up to 5 percent for exceptional or uncontrollable circumstance (such as a natural disaster or a dramatic financial decline) that affect the state’s ability to continue funding at the prior year’s levels, or ratably reduce the maintenance of effort requirement upon states if federal funds are reduced.

Minnesota Career Information System (MCIS)
A Minnesota Department of Education online career exploration resource requiring a paid license for access. Resources include interest and skill assessments, information on colleges, program requirements for various occupations, Personal Learning Plan resources, and college entrance practice tests. [CAREERwise]

Minnesota Department of Education (MDE)
The state agency that oversees all K-12 schools in Minnesota and other educational programs, including early learning programs, Adult Basic Education, community education, and citizenship programs. Responsible for curriculum standards and performance measures. Administers Minnesota's school districts and oversees all licensed teachers in the state. [CAREERwise]

Minnesota Department of Education (MDE) Approved CTE Program
A series of two or more courses within a program of study that are taught by a CTE-licensed secondary teacher, with educational outcomes guided by state core educational standards, national CTE program standards, and/or state CTE frameworks for the assigned program. CTE programs embed student leadership development, career development, and experiential learning opportunities for all students. CTE programs utilize industry-standard equipment and facilities, with outcomes and industry alignment informed by a local advisory committee comprised of local business and industry members, leading to opportunities to attain an industry-recognized credential or postsecondary credential. Classification as an approved secondary CTE Program requires approval by MDE.

Minnesota Department of Education (MDE) Table of Career and Technical Education Programs and Licenses (Table C)
MDE has created a secondary CTE program, course, and license list known as “Table C.” Table C provides a list of six-digit program codes and two-digit course codes for each CTE Career Field, Career Cluster, and Pathway. Program codes listed in Table C are aligned with teacher licensure. Each CTE program in the state is reviewed on a five-year cycle in collaboration with MDE CTE program specialists. For a list of all current approved programs, see MDE’s Program Approval database at education.

Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development (DEED)
The State’s principle economic development agency with four divisions: Workforce Development, Economic Development, Operations, and Office of Economic Equity and Opportunity. Also serves as the state agent of the U.S. Department of Labor, and administers the Minnesota CareerForce Centers, Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA), unemployment insurance, and multiple job training and employment programs, including services for dislocated workers, economically disadvantaged individuals, people with disabilities, Veterans, and youth services.

Minnesota Department of Labor and Industry (DLI)
The state agency that oversees safety, compensation, and other workplace and employment laws, including worker's compensation, child labor regulations, and apprenticeship registration. [CAREERwise]

Minnesota Office of Higher Education (OHE)
A cabinet-level state agency providing financial aid programs and information to allow for greater access to postsecondary education. Serves as the state's clearinghouse for data, research, and analysis on postsecondary enrollment, financial aid, finance, and trends. The agency oversees the Minnesota State Grant program, tuition reciprocity programs, a student loan program, Minnesota's college savings program, licensing, and an early college awareness outreach initiative for youth. [CAREERwise]

Minnesota State Colleges and Universities (Minnesota State)
A system of public colleges and universities governed by the Board of Trustees. Minnesota State administers all 30 community, technical and consolidated colleges and seven universities in Minnesota. [Minnesota State Colleges and Universities Procedure 3.36.1]

Minnesota WorkForce Centers
See CareerForce.

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Nontraditional Fields
Occupations or fields of work, such as careers in computer science, technology, and other current and emerging high skill occupations, for which individuals from one gender comprise less that 25 percent of the individuals employed in each such occupation or field of work. Examples: men entering nursing; women in construction, etc. [Perkins V]

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A set of pre-determined work activities, skills, knowledge, and other criteria that is performed for pay or profit on an ongoing basis, as classified by the Standard Occupational Classification System (SOC). Similar occupations are grouped in career pathways. [CAREERwise]

Occupational Information Network (O*NET)
See also: Standard Occupational Classification System (SOC).
A US Department of Labor-sponsored no-fee web-based resource for comprehensive information on job requirements and worker competencies. The nation's primary source of occupational information organized by SOC. [CAREERwise]

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Perkins Consortium Coordinator
Also known as: Perkins Leader.
See also: Perkins Consortium.
Individual(s) responsible for managing state and federal reporting related to the federal Perkins grant funds allotted to a consortium. Secondary and postsecondary consortium coordinators are appointed locally and can be employees of a school district or college campus or can be a consultant hired by the consortium. 

Perkins Consortium
In Minnesota, a collaboration established by formal agreement involving at least one eligible postsecondary institution and at least one eligible secondary school district that partner to plan for and implement CTE programming and receive Perkins funds in a geographic region of the state. Secondary and postsecondary recipients are independently responsible for meeting accountability measures.

Perkins Legislation or Law
Strengthening Career and Technical Education for the 21st Century Act, public law 115-224 (Perkins V).

Perkins Local Application
Also known as: Local Plan; Perkins Plan. See also: State Plan, Improvement Plan.
The plan and budget that Minnesota CTE consortia must submit every two years to receive funds under Perkins Law. The application must address secondary and postsecondary CTE programming and must be based on findings from a comprehensive local needs assessment. Local plans must be signed by each consortium’s participating college president(s) and each participating school district superintendent.

Personal Learning Plan (PLP)
Also known as: Individualized Learning Plans (ILP) or Personal Career Plans.
A framework that contains a person's, usually a middle or high school student, plans to align school-work with out-of classroom activities, postsecondary plans, work experiences, and career aspirations. PLPs are consistently updated with relevant career development activities at various stages of a person's life. PLP components often include career assessments, career-related and other learning experiences, educational progress towards graduation, career clusters of interest and postsecondary goals. Because a PLP is a tangible document or portfolio, and a series of activities, it is both a document and a process. In Minnesota, secondary students’ PLPs are completed before the start of 9th grade, and updated annually thereafter.

Personnel Activity Report (PAR)
See also: Time and Effort Reporting.
A record of activities conducted by an individual who is funded by Perkins resources or whose services are supported by funds included in a state match of Perkins resources. PARs must be completed for each affected staff member and maintained on file at the eligible institution for audit purposes.

Placement Tests
An exam used to test students’ academic ability so that they may be placed in the appropriate courses in that field. In some cases, a student may be given academic credit based on the results of a placement test. [CAREERwise]

Also known as: Career Portfolio.
A selection of a person's work compiled over a period of time. Used to demonstrate overall performance or progress in a particular area. Can be a display of professional or student work showcasing creative, education, career, and personal achievements. Can be online or a hard copy. Portfolios can be used as part of an approval or admission process to assess prospective students or job candidates work. Example: Portfolio review to determine Credit for Prior Learning, or eligibility for professional licensure.

Also known as: Higher Education.
A formal instructional program in which curriculum is designed primarily for students who have earned a high school diploma or the equivalent. Includes two-year colleges and four-year colleges and universities as well as academic, vocational, and continuing professional education programs. [CAREERwise]

Postsecondary Credit
A quantitative measure of instructional time assigned to a course or an equivalent learning experience such as class time per week over an academic term. [Minnesota State Procedure 3.36.1,]

Postsecondary Educational Institution
An institution of higher education that provides not less than a 2- year program of instruction that is acceptable for credit toward a bachelor’s degree; a Tribally-controlled college or university; or a nonprofit educational institution offering certificate or apprenticeship programs at the postsecondary level. [Perkins V]

Postsecondary Enrollment Options (PSEO)
See also: Concurrent Enrollment.
A program established by Minnesota State Statutes 124D.09 that provides eligible high school students with opportunities to earn secondary and postsecondary credits for college or university courses completed on a college or university campus, at a high school, or at another location.

Preparatory Services
Programs or activities designed to assist individuals who are not enrolled in CTE programs in the selection of, or preparation for participation in, an appropriate CTE training program. Preparatory services include, but are not limited to:

  • Services, programs or activities related to outreach to, or recruitment of, potential CTE students
  • Career counseling and personal counseling
  • Career and technical assessment and testing [34 CFR, 400.4]

Professional Development
See also: Technical Assistance.
An integral part of strategies for providing educators with the knowledge and skills needed to enable students to succeed in CTE. Effective professional development activities are sustained (not stand-alone, 1-day, or short-term workshops), intensive, collaborative, job-embedded, data-driven, classroom-focused, and to the extent practicable, evidence-based. Activities and materials can be for secondary and postsecondary teachers and faculty, administrators, career guidance and academic counselors, specialized instructional support personnel and paraprofessionals. [Perkins V]

Professional Licensure
See also: Certification.
Regulations and permission granted by a competent authority to engage in a business or specific types of occupations, many dealing with public health and safety. The most restrictive form of professional and occupational regulation, overseen by the states or federal government. Licensure requirements vary by state. Example: Nursing license for nurses; teaching license for secondary educators. [CAREERwise]

Program Advisory Committee
Also known as: Advisory Committee; Employer, Community, and Education Partnerships.
Formal group of employers, students, parents, faculty, teachers and staff designed to provide guidance and advice on CTE program design, operation, accountability, and closure. May serve one or more programs at one institution, or related programs at multiple institutions, which may include high schools, colleges, and/or universities.

Program of Study (POS)
See also: Rigorous Program of Study.
A coordinated, non-duplicative sequence of academic and technical content at the secondary and postsecondary level that:

  • incorporates challenging state academic standards, including those adopted by a state under section 1111(b) (1) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965;
  • addresses both academic and technical knowledge and skills, including employability skills;
  • is aligned with the needs of industries in the economy of the state, region, Tribal community, or local area;
  • progresses in specificity (beginning with all aspects of an industry or career cluster and leading to more occupation –specific instruction);
  • has multiple entry and exit points that incorporate credentialing; and
  • culminates in the attainment of a recognized postsecondary credential. [Perkins V]

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Recognized Postsecondary Credential
A credential consisting of an industry recognized certificate or certification, a certification of completion of an apprenticeship, a license recognized by the State involved or Federal Government, or an associate or baccalaureate degree. [Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act]

Registered Apprenticeship; Youth Apprenticeship
See also: Work- Based Learning, Experiential Learning.
An employer's formal training program combining on-thejob learning with technical instruction for a specific trade. Registered apprenticeships for all Minnesotans age 16 or older are administered by the Minnesota Department of Labor and Industry. Youth apprenticeships for high school students are administered by the Minnesota Department of Education. [CAREERwise]

Rigorous Program of Study (RPOS)
See also: Program of Study; State-recognized Program of Study.
(This term is no longer used under Perkins V in Minnesota to describe programs of study.) A framework updated by national CTE authorities that identifies 10 components that support the systemic development and implementation of effective Programs of Study. RPOS components are:

  • Legislation and Policies
  • Partnerships
  • Professional Development
  • Accountability and Evaluation Systems
  • College and Career Readiness Standards
  • Course Sequences
  • Credit Transfer Agreements
  • Guidance Counseling and Academic Advisement
  • Teaching and Learning Strategies
  • Technical Skills Assessments
    [Advance CTE]

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Secondary Supplemental Budget Form
This is an additional budget spreadsheet that must be completed by consortia and submitted with the local Perkins application. This applies only to secondary-level expenditures budgeted with Perkins funds. It links secondary expenditures to UFARS codes. 

Secondary Teacher Licensure
To operate an MDE-approved CTE program, which qualifies for access to state levy funds as well as federal Perkins resources, a program must be taught by an appropriately licensed CTE instructor. The secondary CTE program, license, and course list (Table C) displays a crosswalk between all CTE program codes and teacher licensure. [Minnesota Department of Education]

Single Parent
An individual student who is unmarried or legally separated from a spouse; and has a minor child or children for which the parent has either custody or joint custody; or is pregnant. Single Parents are a Perkins V special population group.

Special Populations
Defined in the Perkins V legislation as the following:

  • Individuals with disabilities
  • Individuals from economically disadvantaged families, including low-income youth and adults
  • Individuals preparing for non-traditional fields
  • Single parents, including single pregnant women
  • Out-of-workforce individuals
  • English learners
  • Homeless individuals described in section 725 of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (44 USC 11434a)
  • Youth who are in, or have aged out of the foster care system
  • Youth with a parent who Is a member of the armed forces and is on active duty

Stackable Credential
Part of a sequence of postsecondary or industry-recognized degrees and training that can be accumulated over time to increase an individual's qualifications and help them to progress in a career pathway to potentially higher-paying, higher-skilled jobs. [CAREERwise]

Standard Occupational Classification System (SOC)
See also: Classification of Instruction Program (CIP) Codes.
The U.S. government's system of classifying all occupations, allowing government agencies and private industry to produce comparable data. All SOCs are displayed and described on the O*NET website administered by the U.S. Department of Labor.

Statement of Assurances and Certifications
A required document submitted with the local Perkins application that must be signed by all consortium member college presidents and district superintendents to indicate understanding of and agreement with requirements for accepting Perkins funds.

State Plan
See also: Consolidated Annual Report.
The Minnesota Perkins V Four-Year Career and Technical Education (CTE) State Plan was prepared jointly by CTE leadership at Minnesota State Colleges and Universities and the Minnesota Department of Education. The Plan describes how Minnesota intends to meet the intent of Perkins V.

State-recognized Programs of Study
See also: Program of Study; Rigorous Program of Study.
Consortium programs of study must meet the following seven specific criteria to be considered state-recognized:

  • Course standards accurately align to the academic, technical, and employability skills learners must master for entry and success in a given career pathway;
  • Program of study incorporates active involvement from an integrated network of partners;
  • Secondary program(s) meets MDE program approval requirements and incorporates courses that lead to postsecondary credits/credentials;
  • Postsecondary academic program meets Minnesota State board policy and Higher Learning Commission requirements;
  • Materials, equipment, and resources reflect current workplace, industry, and/or occupational standards and practices;
  • Incorporates authentic work experiences at the secondary and/or postsecondary level that are valued by industry; and
  • Program of study development, improvement, and advocacy are supported by findings from a comprehensive local needs assessment.

Strategic Directions
Minnesota’s 4-year Perkins V State Plan identifies five strategic directions the state will pursue under Perkins V. Working groups are built around each of the Strategic Directions. The five Strategic Directions for Perkins V are:

  • Advancing Career and Technical Education
  • Career-Connected Learning
  • Integrated Network
  • Equity and Inclusion
  • Knowledgeable Experts

A directive that Perkins funds shall not replace non-federal funds expended for CTE. Permissible uses of Perkins funds allow for the supplemental funding to develop or expand CTE programs and activities.

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Tech Prep
An historical term used to describe Career and Technical Education Programs of Study which often included articulation agreements between secondary and postsecondary institutions. The ‘Tech Prep Grant’ is no longer a federal funding stream (as of 2011).

Technical Assistance
See also: Professional Development
Non-financial assistance provided by national or state CTE leaders. Technical assistance can take the form of sharing information and expertise, instruction, skills training, transmission of working knowledge, consulting services, and may involve the transfer of technical data. The aim of technical assistance is to maximize the quality of project implementation and impact by supporting administration, management, policy development, capacity building, etc. Technical Assistance is a type of professional development. Much of the professional development offered by Minnesota CTE is technical assistance for consortium leaders to administer the Perkins Grant and successfully meet performance indicators.

Technical College
See also: Community College.
A postsecondary institution that offers employment courses and programs that teach specific knowledge and skills leading to specific jobs. [CAREERwise] Technical colleges have the authority to confer undergraduate certificates, diplomas, and the following degrees: associate of science, and associate of applied science. [Minnesota State Policy 3.36]

Technical Skill Assessment
Valid and reliable examinations aligned with industry standards, where available and appropriate. The technical skill assessment documents the attainment of industry-based technical knowledge and skills, documents the evidence of career development and preparation, and contributes data and information to inform continuous program improvement. [Technical Skill Assessment Handbook]

Technical Skill Attainment
Student achievement of knowledge and abilities required to successfully complete a CTE program as measured through a formal valid and reliable assessment instrument and process.

Transfer Credit
Course credit that is accepted by another high school, college or university and applied to meet program requirements.

Time and Effort Reporting
See also: Personnel Activity Reports.
All non-Federal entities that pay employees in full or in part with federal funds (Perkins V grant funds) must keep documentation to demonstrate that the employees’ salaries are allocable and allowable to the federal funds. This also applies to employees whose salaries are paid with state or local funds that are used to meet a required “match” in a federal program. [2 CFR 200.430]

Training Agreement
A signed document between the school, student, parents/ guardians and employers that clearly explains the responsibilities of each involved party of a secondary workbased learning experience. Example forms can be found at

Tribal College
See also:College.
A postsecondary institution operated by an American Indian Tribes(s). Minnesota State administers Fond du Lac Tribal and Community College in partnership with Tribal government.

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Use of Funds
Categories of eligible uses of funds for Perkins activities as described in Section 135 of Perkins V.

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Work Readiness
See also: Employability Skills; Core Competencies; Career and College Readiness.
Refers to the skills, aptitudes, and attitudes employers expect job seekers to have in preparation for the culture and demands of the workplace. Can be obtained through education or job training programs, employer-sponsored events, work-based learning, and other activities that increase transferable skills. 

Work-Based Learning
See also: Experiential Learning. Sustained interactions with industry or community professionals in real workplace settings, to the extent practicable, or simulated environments at an educational institution that foster in-depth, firsthand engagement with the tasks required in a given career field, that are aligned to curriculum and instruction. [Perkins V]

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